More confidence in autoimmune diagnostics
Autoimmune diseases are usually chronic inflammatory reactions in which the immune system makes antibodies against the body's own substances. These inflammatory reactions can lead to damage to the affected organs. The erroneous attack by the immune system usually continues for life without treatment or until the target structure is completely destroyed.
Despite intensive research, it is still not known why autoimmune diseases develop. Recognized hypotheses assume that autoimmune diseases are acquired through genetic predisposition in combination with external influences. If a person has a genetic predisposition and if there are also unfavorable environmental factors such as severe stress, infections or pregnancy, this can lead to an outbreak of autoimmune diseases.
SYMPTOMS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES
The target structure of the autoimmune reaction can be a specific organ or the whole body (several organs and vascular system). Mixed forms with several autoimmune diseases are not uncommon.
The symptoms and their course depend primarily on which body structure, which organ or organ system is affected. Some autoimmune diseases affect a single organ (e.g. the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's thyroiditis), while others can affect structures throughout the body, e.g. the inner skin of the joints rheumatoid arthritis .
Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases
The immune system is either directed selectively against a certain organ (e.g. thyroid, pancreas, intestine, skin, nerves) and then counts as one of the so-called organ-specific autoimmune diseases, or it acts against the entire system and thus causes a non-organ-specific, systemic autoimmune disease. In this case, the immune system attacks various body organs.
ORGAN-SPECIFIC AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
Are affected individual organs or entire organ systems
Organ-specific diseases: These include diseases in which specific organs (tissue structures) are attacked by the immune system. e.g.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
SYSTEMIC AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
Systemic diseases or non-organ-specific diseases:
Systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as Collagenoses , which make up five to ten percent of rheumatic diseases, belong to this group. Typical autoantibodies are here Antinuclear antibody (ANA), against structures of the Cell nucleus , but partly also des Cytoplasm are directed. e.g.