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AUTOIMMUNE DIAGNOSTICS

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More confidence in autoimmune diagnostics

Autoimmune diseases are usually chronic inflammatory reactions in which the immune system makes antibodies against the body's own substances. These inflammatory reactions can lead to damage to the affected organs. The erroneous attack by the immune system usually continues for life without treatment or until the target structure is completely destroyed.

Despite intensive research, it is still not known why autoimmune diseases develop. Recognized hypotheses assume that autoimmune diseases are acquired through genetic predisposition in combination with external influences. If a person has a genetic predisposition and if there are also unfavorable environmental factors such as severe stress, infections or pregnancy, this can lead to an outbreak of autoimmune diseases.

AUTOIMMUNE DIAGNOSTICS

SYMPTOMS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES

The target structure of the autoimmune reaction can be a specific organ or the whole body (several organs and vascular system). Mixed forms with several autoimmune diseases are not uncommon.

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The symptoms and their course depend primarily on which body structure, which organ or organ system is affected. Some autoimmune diseases affect a single organ (e.g. the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's thyroiditis), while others can affect structures throughout the body, e.g. the inner skin of the joints  rheumatoid arthritis .

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AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

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Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases

The immune system is either directed selectively against a certain organ (e.g. thyroid, pancreas, intestine, skin, nerves) and then counts as one of the so-called organ-specific autoimmune diseases, or it acts against the entire system and thus causes a non-organ-specific, systemic autoimmune disease. In this case, the immune system attacks various body organs.

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GROUP 1:

Organ-specific  

Diseases.

ORGAN-SPECIFIC AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
 

Are affected  individual organs or entire organ systems

Organ-specific diseases: These include diseases in which specific organs (tissue structures) are attacked by the immune system. e.g.

  • multiple sclerosis 

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus

  • Ulcerative colitis 

  • Pemphigus vulgaris 

  • Myasthenia gravis 

  • Graves disease 

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SYSTEMIC AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
 

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Systemic diseases or non-organ-specific diseases:

Systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as  Collagenoses , which make up five to ten percent of rheumatic diseases, belong to this group. Typical autoantibodies are here  Antinuclear antibody  (ANA), against structures of the  Cell nucleus , but partly also des  Cytoplasm  are directed. e.g.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis 

  • Lupus erythematosus 

  • Polymyositis 

  • Sjogren's syndrome 

  • Scleroderma 

  • Systemic vasculitis